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How Hard is Japanese to Learn for English Speakers?

Updated: Sep 4, 2023

How Hard is Japanese to Learn for English Speakers

Learning Japanese can be a rewarding experience for English speakers. The language presents its set of difficulties and joys. To gauge the level of difficulty that English speakers may encounter when learning Japanese, let's explore aspects of the language.

Writing System

One of the biggest differences between Japanese compared with English is its writing system. Unlike English, which uses one kind of alphabet, Japanese employs three scripts: Kanji (漢字), Hiragana (ひらがな) and Katakana (カタカナ).

1. Kanji:

Derived from Chinese characters, Kanji consists of symbols, and each symbol represents a word or concept. There are over 2,000 commonly used Kanji characters, each with readings depending on the context.

2. Hiragana:

Another phonetic script, Hiragana also consists of 46 base characters. It's primarily used for native Japanese words, grammatical functions, and particles. Unlike Katakana, it is not used for foreign terms but is essential for the structure and grammar of sentences.

3. Katakana:

These phonetic scripts consist of 46 base characters each. Hiragana is primarily used for words, while Katakana is utilized for foreign words and names, technical and scientific terms, as well as names of plants, animals, and minerals.

Mastering the art of reading and writing in Japanese requires proficiency in all three scripts, making it a formidable challenge.


The grammar of Japanese differs greatly from that of English. For example, sentence structure often follows the pattern Subject Object Verb (SOV), unlike the Subject Verb Object (SVO) structure commonly used in English. In Japanese, adjectives and verbs undergo conjugation, and particles (small words indicating the relationship between words) are frequently employed. Despite these complexities, the absence of articles, plurals, or a future tense can simplify aspects of learning grammar.


Japanese pronunciation may appear relatively straightforward to English speakers due to its fewer sounds. However, mastering a pitch accent can prove challenging. Unlike English, which is a stress-timed language, Japanese operates as a pitch accent language. Misplacing emphasis on a word's pitch can completely alter its meaning.


When it comes to vocabulary, there is an overlap with English except for loanwords (primarily borrowed from English) that have been incorporated into the language.

When it comes to building your vocabulary, the absence of cognates means you have to start from scratch.

Cultural Context

Mastering a language goes beyond learning words and grammar; it also involves understanding the nuances that are intertwined with it. The Japanese language is closely intertwined with its culture, which can be both captivating and bewildering. For example, the level of politeness and formality affects how words and sentences are structured. Honorifics, 敬語 (keigo), and different levels of speech (casual, polite, humble, respectful) play a role in the language and can pose challenges when trying to become proficient.

Resources and Learning Difficulty

The availability of resources can significantly impact the ease or difficulty of learning a language. Luckily, Japanese is a supported language with textbooks, apps, courses, and cultural content at your disposal. The global popularity of pop culture, through anime, manga, and video games, also offers a way to engage with the language.

However, according to the Foreign Service Institute (FSI), Japanese ranks among one of the most difficult languages for English speakers to learn. They estimate that achieving proficiency could take 2,200 class hours.

Learning Japanese requires a time commitment compared to languages, like Spanish or French, which typically take around 600 to 750 class hours.

The Rewards Await

Mastering Japanese presents its share of challenges. However, the journey is not without its rewards. Embracing the language opens doors to a diverse culture while also offering economic prospects. Japan ranks as one of the world's largest economies, and proficiency in Japanese can prove advantageous across professional domains.

In Summary

So, is Japanese a language for English speakers to learn? The answer lies in both "yes" and "no." Yes, due to its writing system, different grammar structure, and intricate cultural nuances. However, once you overcome these obstacles, you'll discover a captivating language that comes with an abundance of learning resources and a supportive community.

Then, let the challenges discourage you from pursuing Japanese; let them serve as enriching experiences that broaden your horizons and deepen your cultural understanding. がんばれ!Ganbare! (Keep up the work!)

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